A professional typist or typists in 1870's supposed to be.

A professional typist or typists in 1870's supposed to be.
http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83026413/1878-07-17/ed-1/seq-5/# Wanted experienced type writer , average capacity of fourty to sixty words per minute.

The New Orleans daily Democrat., July 17, 1878, Page 5, Image 5http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83026413/1878-07-17/ed-1/seq-5/#date1=1867&index=0&date2=1880&searchType=advanced&language=&sequence=0&words=SHole+TYPE+WRITER&proxdistance=5&state=&rows=20&ortext=Sholes+Gliden&proxtext=&phrasetext=type+writer&and
The next person had four years' experience at August,1879. So this person started own carrier since 1875?  then , There could be a person as a typist since 1875 at least.
Evening star., August 05, 1879, Image 2
About Evening star. (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972
Image provided by: Library of Congress, Washington, DC
Type Writer--Employment wanted by an Operator of four years' experience. Address "TYPE WRITER." No. 100. K at. n.w. ang4-St


What I have to do is to refine some tables and charts, and translate some pages to English.

I could have contact with Mr. Sean Luke:
who once had shown the algorithm and result of digraph-statistics on some Brown corpus. I'd used that, and till now it has not been available. I've known this is because the code is just for a class while 2009 Sean had.
Now he showed me the Lisp code and the Brown corpus text he treated. So I can study and trace what he did by the code on the corpus. Thanks a lot! May God bless you!
the Brown corpus

What had been happened on upstrike typewriters inside typebasket before QWERTY?

Until QWERTY layout had been stable almost in 1882, and later on until early 20th, the upstrike typewriters are the main stream of those.

keywords: type bar, up-strike, front-strike, type-basket, letter sequence on type-basket,

type bar
transformation from up-strike to front-strike
ETCetra No.42/March, 1998
letter sequence on type-basket

How I used the digraph-statistics

For example, "er" and "re" are accumulated in one and represented by "er"
    2014-03-15 7:02 GMT+09:00 Sean Luke < (at)cs.gmu.edu> wrote:
    *skip the above*
    ... to generate the following statistics (digraphs not appearing in this list have a value of 0):
      th 134548
      he 123194
      in 89449
      er 76135
      an 73072
      re 67309
      on 61668
      *skip the rest*

The frequency the adjacent type-bars move sequentially while a Brown-corpus-text had been typed out.

If the letters of the type-bar are put sequentialy around the type-basket and if like ...VWXYZ23456789ABCD... then



adjacent typebars' letter pairs frequency

Plots of the frequency the adjacent typebar's sequential motion along time and innovation goes by,


among many of scattered key layouts ( among many of over sixty thousands of Monte Carlo trials )



seems like Vertical ellipsis ⋮ Is this for what?

seems like Vertical ellipsis ⋮ Is this for  what?

“paragraph separator” (“– – – –” in Morse Code of theWestern Union Telegraph Company) that was often used when receiving newspaper articles.

Koichi Yasuoka and Motoko Yasuoka: On the Prehistory of QWERTY, ZINBUN, No.42 (March 2011), pp.161-174. http://kanji.zinbun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~yasuoka/publications/PreQWERTY.html


about US patents 207557 and 207558

These patents seem like an invention to apart the type-heads of the neighboring type-bars, when waiting at rest position.

I have a 1878 Sholes model for US patent #207557 (August 1878) that was made to demonstrate an improvement in the typebars.

Posted By: mantelliflavio, Thu Nov 25, 2010
TYPEWRITERS : Message: Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Sholes & Glidden Type-writer Question:


not staggered

 In Figure 2 of the drawings a modified arrangement of the keyboard is illustrated, the vertical rows of the keys at the right and left hand sides of the vertical center line of the keyboard being inch'red in a direction to ward each other. This arrangement of the keyboard has been found desirable in order that each hand of the operator would move in a< natural direction toward each other as the fingers reach for the keys of the uppermost rows of the keyboard. If desired, the gap which it will be seen occurs at the lower portion of the center of the keyboard, may be .filled in by placing some of the less frequently used keys therein, such as for instance the tabulator keys, the back spacer or the like.


Pratt http://qwerty-history.g.hatena.ne.jp/raycy/20110526/1306399397